- In its natural form, bamboo as a construction material is traditionally associated with the cultures of South Asia, East Asia and the South Pacific, to some extent in Central and South America and by extension in the aesthetic of Tiki culture. In China and India, bamboo was used to hold up simple suspension bridges, either by making cables of split bamboo or twisting whole culms of sufficiently pliable bamboo together. One such bridge in the area of Qian-Xian is referenced in writings dating back 960 A.D. and may have stood since as far back as the 3rd century B.C., due largely to continuous maintenance. Bamboo has also long been used as scaffolding; the practice has been banned in China for buildings over six storeys but is still in continuous use for skyscrapers in Hong Kong. In the Philippines, the nipa hut is a fairly typical example of the most basic sort of housing where bamboo is used; the walls are split and woven bamboo, and bamboo slats and poles may be used as its support. In Japanese architecture, bamboo is used primarily as a supplemental and/or decorative element in buildings such as fencing, fountains, grates and gutters, largely due to the ready abundance of quality timber.[20 Various structural shapes may be made by training the bamboo to assume them as it grows. Squared sections of bamboo are created by compressing the growing stalk within a square form. Arches may similarly be created by forcing the bamboo's growth with the desired form, and costs much less than it would to assume the same shape in regular wood timber. More traditional forming methods, such as the application of heat and pressure, may also be used to curve or flatten the cut stalks.Bamboo can be cut and laminated into sheets and planks. This process involves cutting stalks into thin strips, planing them flat, boiling and drying the strips, which are then glued, pressed and finished. Generally long used in China and Japan, entrepreneurs started developing and selling laminated bamboo flooring in the West during the mid 1990s; products made from bamboo laminate, including flooring, cabinetry, furniture and even decorations, are currently surging in popularity, transitioning from the boutique market to mainstream providers such as Home Depot. The bamboo goods industry (which also includes small goods, fabric, etc.) is expected to be worth $25 billion by the year 2012. The quality of bamboo laminate varies between manufacturers and the maturity of the plant from which it was harvested (six years being considered the optimum); the sturdiest products fulfill their claims of being up to three times harder than oak hardwood, but others may be softer than standard hardwood. Bamboo intended for use in construction should be treated to resist insects and rot. The most common solution for this purpose is a mixture of borax and boric acid. Another process involves boiling cut bamboo to remove the starches that attract insects.
Bamboo has been used as reinforcement for concrete in those areas where it is plentiful, though dispute exists over its effectiveness in the various studies done on the subject. Bamboo does have the necessary strength to fulfil this function, but untreated bamboo will swell from the absorption of water from the concrete, causing it to crack. Several procedures must be followed to overcome this shortcoming.
Several institutes, businesses, and universities are working on the bamboo as an ecological construction material. In the United States and France, it is possible to get houses made entirely of bamboo, which are earthquake and cyclone-resistant and internationally certified. In Bali, Indonesia, an international primary school, named the Green School, is constructed entirely of bamboo, due to its beauty, and advantages as a sustainable resource. There are three ISO standards for bamboo as a construction material.
In parts of India, bamboo is used for drying clothes indoors, both as the rod high up near the ceiling to hang clothes on, as well as the stick that is wielded with acquired expert skill to hoist, spread, and to take down the clothes when dry. It is also commonly used to make ladders, which apart from their normal function, are also used for carrying bodies in funerals. In Maharashtra, the bamboo groves and forests are called VeLuvana, the name VeLu for bamboo is most likely from Sanskrit, while Vana means forest.
Furthermore, bamboo is also used to create flagpoles for saffron-coloured, Hindu religious flags, which can be seen fluttering across India, especially Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, as well as in Guyana and Suriname.
Bamboo is used for the structural members of the India pavilion at Expo 2010 in Shanghai. The pavilion is the world’s largest bamboo dome, about 34 m in diameter, with bamboo beams/members overlaid with a ferro-cement slab, water proofing, copper plate, solar PV panels, a small windmill and live plants. A total of 30 km of bamboo were used. The dome is supported on 18-m-long steel piles and a series of steel ring beams. The bamboo was treated with borax and boric acid as a fire retardant and insecticide and bent in the required shape. The bamboo sections are joined with reinforcement bars and concrete mortar to achieve necessary lengths.
- Paramagnetism is a physical force. It is the driving force behind Structured Water, the KIVA Lights and the Purple Plates. Not a hard-to-grasp spiritual essence, but a force that is identified and detailed in every physics handbook in the world. The knowledge of this force by the ancients is indisputable.
Exactly what in plain language, does this definition of paramagnetism mean?
First we must define the term magnetic moment. If you spin a fixed magnet in the center of a loop of wire, you generate electricity in the wire, creating an electric generator. Magnetic moment is the ration between the maximum torque exerted on a magnet or current-carrying coil, or the charge in a magnetic field, and the strength of the field itself. Since atoms and molecules spin, rotate, and vibrate in all kinds of predictable directions depending on their makeup, they are in effect, little dynamic generators displaying both field strength and torque (torque = rotating power in a mechanism). In summary, magnetic moment is the ratio of the strength of the magnetic field to rotating power.
It is obvious that the earth and cosmos itself has a magnetic moment since it has a low-energy magnetic field of about ½ gauss. Gauss is the CGS unit of magnetic flux. CGS means Centimeter, Grams, Seconds. Put quite simply, if you have one gram of a substance, on centimeter from a magnet, in what part of one second will it move to the magnet? Put another way, what weight of a paramagnetic material will move one centimeter to a magnet in one second?
Any substance, including soil or rock, that will move toward a magnet is paramagnetic. If you can measure the CGS of a substance then you will know the measure of its attractance force to magnet. CGS is known as susceptibility because it is obvious that if a substance moves to a magnet, then it is susceptible to a magnetic field. Other ways to say it are that the substance is attracted to magnet field, or resonating to the field or grabbed hold of by the field, or even loves the field!
If a paramagnetic substance is placed in a strong magnetic field, all of the field lines will eventually line up, as illustrated:
In nature, all substances are in a weak cosmic magnetic field, which is the earth's ever-present ½ gauss, therefore they are aligned thus:
They are then not completely random, or, as mathematicians might say, in a complete chaotic arrangement. That is why chaotic mathematics is so important to a study of paramagnetism. Take heed chaotic mathematicians. Once place in a strong magnetic field like the electromagnetic coil of a CGS meter, they become more aligned. The measure of the more aligned is the measure of the paramagnetic force, or the CGS measure.
Now that we know that paramagnetism is the alignment of a force field in one direction by a substance in a magnetic field, then we must ask, what is diamagnetism? The Dictionary of Chemistry defines diamagnetism as follows: "Diamagnetism is the magnetization in the opposite direction to that of the applied magnetic field, e.g., the susceptibility is negative away from the magnetic field." Actually all substances are diamagnetic, but it is a weak form of magnetism and may be masked by other, stronger forces, for instance a magnetic field.
Diamagnetism results from changes induced in the torque by bits of electrons that oppose the applied magnetic flux. There is thus a weak negative susceptibility to the magnet. Most organic compounds, including all plants, are diamagnetic. If plants are diamagnetic and good growing soil paramagnetic, then we must be dealing with the yin and yang of Chinese and Japanese geomancy, or the energy put forth by the crane and turtle rock formation.
Why are the crane and turtle rock important? Simply because most of the ancient Zen gardens that I have observed over the years appeared to be both paramagnetic/crane and diamagnetic/turtle! This was observed and documented in the Secret Book of Gardening. The diamagnetic properties of the flattened turtle rock are visually obvious by the amount of white quartz in it. One does not chip pieces of beautiful Zen garden rock to study its CGS properties, but most quartz is not only recognizable by sight, it is also either neutral or weakly diamagnetic.
The Nanzen-en stroll garden of the Kamakura period has several high granite and low quartz boulder arrangements as does the Ryogen-en garden designed by Soami. The diamagnetic/paramagnetic, or yin/yang arrangement is most often seen in the double crane and turtle configurations. There is also a triple configuration that has a central granite standing rock and two smaller granite paramagnetic lower rocks. Tentoku-en, the landscape garden of the Momoyama period, has a high crane basalt rock and low turtle limestone rock. Around these rocks an arrangement of Chinese bellflowers grows in profusion. Interestingly enough, they grow to the left of the tall basalt crane rock and on the right side of the flatter turtle rock.
By positioning such rocks in relationship to the sun and to each other, one can control plant growth. Apparently the ancients knew about this yin and yang, diamagnetic/paramagnetic phenomenon and utilized it in their Zen gardens. That such knowledge is now lost is demonstrated by the fact that the crane/turtle arrangement found at the elegant restaurant where my friend and I had dinner was composed of stones that were both paramagnetic and not paramagnetic/diamagnetic.
Before we move on to a discussion of atmospheric ELF radio waves, it is important that we also define magnetism (ferromagnetism). Ferro means iron. Magnetism occurs in ferro-magnetic substances because it is a characteristic of certain metals, particularly iron, at certain temperatures. Below a certain temperature, called the Curie point, an increasing magnetic field applied to iron, or any ferromagnetic substance, will cause increasing magnetization to a value so high that it becomes saturated and remains permanently stored, aligned magnetic moment. It is analogous to a stored DC battery.
Magnetic substances are extremely rare in nature, the best known being the mineral magnetite. Because of the rarity of magnetite, it is not apt to be the growing force of nature. That does not mean that magnetism is unimportant in the scheme of life.
In this regard, there is one last point that should be made. Even though magnetism is a fixed force, it does vary slightly. There is no such thing as flat line DC - everything in nature alternates, at least slightly. The simple fact is that the magnetic field of the cosmos and the earth alternates far more than the field of a fixed DC magnet. It is this alternating earth/cosmic field to which volcanic soil and volcanic rock resonate, or to which both are susceptible.
As in the case of plants, water is diamagnetic. The atmosphere, because of the oxygen, is paramagnetic. Some of my preliminary experiments at night, during the full moon, indicate a paramagnetic/diamagnetic, plant, moon, water and soil relationship in nature. We know that the moon, which is highly paramagnetic, has a very strong effect on tides, which are of diamagnetic water. The many volcanic and/or meteorite cones indicate a paramagnetic moon body even though I could find no data on this subject from moon rock measurements.
It has long been known that certain Indian tribes planted by the full moon. There is little doubt in my mind that the American Indian knew more about good agriculture techniques than modern agriculturists! As the Sioux brave remarked while watching a farmer turning under virgin prairie grass, "wrong side up!" (in Altars of Unknown Stone by Wes Jackson).
- The study of sacred geometry has its roots in the study of nature, and the mathematical principles at work therein. Many forms observed in nature can be related to geometry, for example, the chambered nautilus grows at a constant rate and so its shell forms a logarithmic spiral to accommodate that growth without changing shape. Also, honeybees construct hexagonal cells to hold their honey. These and other correspondences are seen by believers in sacred geometry to be further proof of the cosmic significance of geometric forms. These phenomena can be explained through natural principles.[4
The golden ratio, geometric ratios, and geometric figures were often employed in the design of Egyptian, ancient Indian, Greek and Roman architecture. Medieval European cathedrals also incorporated symbolic geometry. Indian and Himalayan spiritual communities often constructed temples and fortifications on design plans of mandala and yantra.
Many of the sacred geometry principles of the human body and of ancient architecture have been compiled into the Vitruvian Man drawing by Leonardo Da Vinci, itself based on the much older writings of the roman architect Vitruvius.
A contemporary usage of the term sacred geometry describes assertions of a mathematical order to the intrinsic nature of the universe. Scientists see the same geometric and mathematical patterns as arising directly from natural principles.
Among the most prevalent traditional geometric forms ascribed to sacred geometry are the sine wave, the sphere, the vesica piscis, the torus (donut), the 5 platonic solids, the golden spiral, the tesseract (4-dimensional cube), Fractals and the star tetrahedron (2 oppositely oriented and interpenetrating tetrahedrons) which leads to the merkaba.
- A sudden brightening observed over the Sun surface or the solar limb, which is interpreted as a large energy release of up to 6 × 1025 joules of energy (about a sixth of the total energy output of the Sun each second). The flare ejects clouds of electrons, ions, and atoms through the corona into space. These clouds typically reach Earth a day or two after the event. The term is also used to refer to similar phenomena in other stars, where the term stellar flare applies.
- Solar flares affect all layers of the solar atmosphere (photosphere, chromosphere, and corona), when the medium plasma is heated to tens of millions of kelvins and electrons, protons, and heavier ions are accelerated to near the speed of light. They produce radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum at all wavelengths, from radio waves to gamma rays, although most of the energy goes to frequencies outside the visual range and for this reason the majority of the flares are not visible to the naked eye and must be observed with special instruments. Flares occur in active regions around sunspots, where intense magnetic fields penetrate the photosphere to link the corona to the solar interior. Flares are powered by the sudden (timescales of minutes to tens of minutes) release of magnetic energy stored in the corona. The same energy releases may produce coronal mass ejections (CME), although the relation between CMEs and flares is still not well established. X-rays and UV radiation emitted by solar flares can affect Earth's ionosphere and disrupt long-range radio communications. Direct radio emission at decimetric wavelengths may disturb operation of radars and other devices operating at these frequencies. Solar flares were first observed on the Sun by Richard Christopher Carrington and independently by Richard Hodgson in 1859  as localized visible brightenings of small areas within a sunspot group. Stellar flares have also been observed on a variety of other stars.
- The frequency of occurrence of solar flares varies, from several per day when the Sun is particularly "active" to less than one every week when the Sun is "quiet", following the 11-year cycle (the solar cycle). Large flares are less frequent than smaller ones. Flares occur when accelerated charged particles, mainly electrons, interact with the plasma medium. Scientific research has shown that the phenomenon of magnetic reconnection is responsible for the acceleration of the charged particles. On the Sun, magnetic reconnection may happen on solar arcades – a series of closely occurring loops of magnetic lines of force. These lines of force quickly reconnect into a low arcade of loops leaving a helix of magnetic field unconnected to the rest of the arcade. The sudden release of energy in this reconnection is in the origin of the particle acceleration. The unconnected magnetic helical field and the material that it contains may violently expand outwards forming a coronal mass ejection. This also explains why solar flares typically erupt from what are known as the active regions on the Sun where magnetic fields are much stronger on an average. Although there is a general agreement on the flares' causes, the details are still not well known. It is not clear how the magnetic energy is transformed into the particle kinetic energy, nor it is known how the particles are accelerated to energies as high as 10 MeV (Mega Electronvolt) and beyond. There are also some inconsistencies regarding the total number of accelerated particles, which sometimes seems to be greater than the total number in the coronal loop. We are unable to forecast flares, even to this day. Solar flares are classified as A, B, C, M or X according to the peak flux (in watts per square meter, W/m2) of 100 to 800 picometer X-rays near Earth, as measured on the GOES spacecraft. Each class has a peak flux ten times greater than the preceding one. Within a class there is a linear scale from 1 to 9 (multiplicative factor), so an X2 flare (2 x 10−4 W/m2) is twice as powerful as an X1 flare (10−4 W/m2), and is four times more powerful than an M5 flare (5 x 10−5 W/m2). The more powerful M and X class flares are often associated with a variety of effects on the near-Earth space environment. This extended logarithmic classification is necessary because the total energies of flares range over many orders of magnitude, following a uniform distribution with flare frequency roughly proportional to the inverse of the total energy. Stellar flares and earthquakes show similar power-law distributions.Another flare classification is based on Hα spectral observations. The scheme uses both the intensity and emitting surface. The classification in intensity is qualitative, referring the flares as: (f)aint, (n)ormal or (b)rilliant. The emitting surface is measured in terms of millionths of the hemisphere and is described below (The total hemisphere area AH = 6.2 × 1012 km2.)